Bastille Advisory: Bastille Tracking Number 43


The deployment of ATI’s mass notification system in San Francisco, CA (known by the City and County of San Francisco as the city’s Outdoor Public Warning System) is vulnerable to false alarms. It can be triggered by specially-crafted malicious radio transmissions, without requiring physical access to any part of the system.

Affected Devices

In the basic configuration used by the SF OPWS:


Proof-of-Concept Details

These findings apply to the current SF OPWS configuration:

1. Discovering input/output frequencies
2. Air interface analysis
3. Malicious packet construction and transmission

The SF OPWS is exercised every Tuesday at noon by the SF Department of Emergency Management (DEM) in a test mode where all nodes are simultaneously triggered, and then each node is queried for its state in series (to which the node responds with its status).

The configuration uses a standard dedicated analog repeater approach. A central console (at the SF DEM) is used to trigger and monitor the nodes. The console, and the nodes, connect to analog radios that transmit and receive through the repeater to enable coverage across San Francisco.

A custom digital packet-based protocol is used to transmit commands and telemetry between the console and nodes.

The frames to activate the nodes are broadcast during the SF midday test, and contain the same payload each week. As they are transmitted in the clear, it is possible to construct similarly valid sequence of commands and transmit them on the repeater’s input frequency, thereby triggering all nodes. It is trivial to construct a different sequence of payloads, and/or attempt fuzzing, to see what other functions can be activated (for instance, live audio re-broadcast via radio).

* Learnt/guessed from public research only.


An attacker must find the dedicated input/output frequencies in use, reverse engineer the air interface, be able to craft malicious packets, and transmit those packets.

Suggested Solutions

Use standard approaches for message encryption and authentication.

Consideration of anti-jamming strategies is also advised.

Test Environment

San Francisco Outdoor Public Warning System (OPWS)

Note: No active testing was performed (i.e. no signals were transmitted). All analysis has been conducted passively.


Balint Seeber, Bastille